### 1. Measurements and Experimentation

**(i)** International System of Units, the required SI units with correct symbols are given at the end of this syllabus. Other commonly used system of units – fps and cgs.

**(ii)** Measurements using common instruments, Vernier calipers and micro-metre screw gauge for length, and simple pendulum for time.

### 2. Motion in One Dimension

Scalar and vector quantities, distance, speed, velocity, acceleration; graphs of distance-time and speed-time; equations of uniformly accelerated motion with derivations.

Examples of Scalar and vector quantities only, rest and motion in one dimension; distance and displacement; speed and velocity; acceleration and retardation; distance-time and velocity-time graphs; meaning of slope of the graphs; [Non-uniform acceleration excluded].

### 3. Laws of Motion

**(i) Contact and non-contact forces; cgs & SI units.**

Examples of contact forces (frictional force, normal reaction force, tension force as applied through strings and force exerted during collision) and non-contact forces (gravitational, electric and magnetic). General properties of non-contact forces. cgs and SI units of force and their relation with Gravitational units.

**(ii) Newton’s First Law of Motion** (qualitative discussion) to introduce the idea of inertia, mass and force.

Newton’s first law; statement and qualitative discussion; definitions of inertia and force from first law, examples of inertia as illustration of first law. (Inertial mass not included).

**(iii) Newton’s Second Law of Motion** (including F = ma); weight and mass.

Detailed study of the second law. Linear momentum, p = mv; change in momentum Δp = Δ(mv) = mΔv for mass remaining constant rate of change of momentum;

**(iv) Newton’s Third Law of Motion** (qualitative discussion only); simple examples.

Statement with qualitative discussion; examples of action – reaction pairs, say F_{BA} and F_{AB}; action and reaction always act on different bodies.

**(v) Gravitation**

Universal Law of Gravitation. (Statement and equation) and its importance. Gravity, acceleration due to gravity, free fall. Weight and mass, Weight as force of gravity comparison of mass and weight; gravitational units of force, simple numerical problems (problems on variation of gravity excluded).

### 4. Fluids

**(i)** Change of pressure with depth (including the formula p = hρg); Transmission of pressure in liquids; atmospheric pressure.

**(ii)** Buoyancy, Archimedes’ Principle; floatation; relationship with density; relative density; determination of relative density of a solid.

### 5. Heat and Energy

**(i)** Concepts of heat and temperature.

Heat as energy, SI unit – joule, 1 cal = 4.186 J exactly.

**(ii)** Anomalous expansion of water; graphs showing variation of volume and density of water with temperature in the 0 to 10°C range. Hope’s experiment and consequences of Anomalous expansion.

**(ii)** Expansion of solids, liquids and gases (qualitative discussion only); uses and consequences of expansion (simple examples); anomalous expansion of water.

**(iii) Energy flow and its importance:**

Understanding the flow of energy as Linear and linking it with the laws of Thermodynamics – Energy is neither created nor destroyed and No Energy transfer is 100% efficient.

**(iv) Energy sources.**

Solar, wind, water and nuclear energy (only qualitative discussion of steps to produce electricity). Renewable versus non-renewable sources (elementary ideas with example).

**(v) Global warming and Green House effect:** Meaning, causes and impact on the life on earth. Projections for the future; what needs to be done.

### 6. Light

**(i)** Reflection of light; images formed by a pair of parallel and perpendicular plane mirrors

**(ii)** Spherical mirrors; characteristics of image formed by these mirrors. Uses of concave and convex mirror. (Only simple direct ray diagrams are required).

### 7. Sound

**(i)** Nature of Sound waves. Requirement of a medium for sound waves to travel; propagation and speed in different media; comparison with speed of light.

**(ii) Infrasonic, sonic, ultrasonic frequencies and their applications.**

Elementary ideas and simple applications only. Difference between ultrasonic and supersonic.

### 8. Electricity and Magnetism

**(i) **Simple electric circuit using an electric cell and a bulb to introduce the idea of current (including its relationship to charge); potential difference; insulators and conductors; closed and open circuits; direction of current (electron flow and conventional).

**(ii) **Induced magnetism, Magnetic field of earth. Neutral points in magnetic fields.

**(iii) **Introduction of electromagnet and its uses.