Class 9 Syllabus

1. Measurements and Experimentation

(i) International System of Units, the required SI units with correct symbols are given at the end of this syllabus. Other commonly used system of units – fps and cgs.

(ii) Measurements using common instruments, Vernier calipers and micro-metre screw gauge for length, and simple pendulum for time.

2. Motion in One Dimension

Scalar and vector quantities, distance, speed, velocity, acceleration; graphs of distance-time and speed-time; equations of uniformly accelerated motion with derivations.

Examples of Scalar and vector quantities only, rest and motion in one dimension; distance and displacement; speed and velocity; acceleration and retardation; distance-time and velocity-time graphs; meaning of slope of the graphs; [Non-uniform acceleration excluded].

3. Laws of Motion

(i) Contact and non-contact forces; cgs & SI units.

Examples of contact forces (frictional force, normal reaction force, tension force as applied through strings and force exerted during collision) and non-contact forces (gravitational, electric and magnetic). General properties of non-contact forces. cgs and SI units of force and their relation with Gravitational units.

(ii) Newton’s First Law of Motion (qualitative discussion) to introduce the idea of inertia, mass and force.

Newton’s first law; statement and qualitative discussion; definitions of inertia and force from first law, examples of inertia as illustration of first law. (Inertial mass not included).

(iii) Newton’s Second Law of Motion (including F = ma); weight and mass.

Detailed study of the second law. Linear momentum, p = mv; change in momentum Δp = Δ(mv) = mΔv for mass remaining constant rate of change of momentum;

(iv) Newton’s Third Law of Motion (qualitative discussion only); simple examples.

Statement with qualitative discussion; examples of action – reaction pairs, say FBA and FAB; action and reaction always act on different bodies.

(v) Gravitation

Universal Law of Gravitation. (Statement and equation) and its importance. Gravity, acceleration due to gravity, free fall. Weight and mass, Weight as force of gravity comparison of mass and weight; gravitational units of force, simple numerical problems (problems on variation of gravity excluded).

4. Fluids

(i) Change of pressure with depth (including the formula p = hρg); Transmission of pressure in liquids; atmospheric pressure.

(ii) Buoyancy, Archimedes’ Principle; floatation; relationship with density; relative density; determination of relative density of a solid.

5. Heat and Energy

(i) Concepts of heat and temperature.

Heat as energy, SI unit – joule, 1 cal = 4.186 J exactly.

(ii) Anomalous expansion of water; graphs showing variation of volume and density of water with temperature in the 0 to 10°C range. Hope’s experiment and consequences of Anomalous expansion.

(ii) Expansion of solids, liquids and gases (qualitative discussion only); uses and consequences of expansion (simple examples); anomalous expansion of water.

(iii) Energy flow and its importance:

Understanding the flow of energy as Linear and linking it with the laws of Thermodynamics – Energy is neither created nor destroyed and No Energy transfer is 100% efficient.

(iv) Energy sources.

Solar, wind, water and nuclear energy (only qualitative discussion of steps to produce electricity). Renewable versus non-renewable sources (elementary ideas with example).

(v) Global warming and Green House effect: Meaning, causes and impact on the life on earth. Projections for the future; what needs to be done.

6. Light

(i) Reflection of light; images formed by a pair of parallel and perpendicular plane mirrors

(ii) Spherical mirrors; characteristics of image formed by these mirrors. Uses of concave and convex mirror. (Only simple direct ray diagrams are required).

7. Sound

(i) Nature of Sound waves. Requirement of a medium for sound waves to travel; propagation and speed in different media; comparison with speed of light.

(ii) Infrasonic, sonic, ultrasonic frequencies and their applications.

Elementary ideas and simple applications only. Difference between ultrasonic and supersonic.

8. Electricity and Magnetism

(i) Simple electric circuit using an electric cell and a bulb to introduce the idea of current (including its relationship to charge); potential difference; insulators and conductors; closed and open circuits; direction of current (electron flow and conventional).

(ii) Induced magnetism, Magnetic field of earth. Neutral points in magnetic fields.

(iii) Introduction of electromagnet and its uses.

Scroll to Top